Is Claude Vorilhon “Maitreya”?

Here’s a well researched article that was originally posted on maitreya.clairelabrie.com in 2009 about the Raelian claim that Claude Vorilhon is Maitreya.

Maitreya

by Claire Labrie,

Ex level 3* raelian for several years.

Do you want to know if “Rael” is really “Maitreya”[1], the Messiah expected by some Buddhists?

The raelians may think that they already know the answer to this question simply because Raël has told them so. After all, he has given them certain arguments enticing them to believe him. But it is important to remember first and foremost, that this opinion is based entirely on trust. Having spent many years of my life within the Raelian Movement, I know all too well how strong this trust can be.

Fortunately, that blind trust can be transformed into knowledge. In fact, what the results of my research demonstrated to me was that the gap between believing and knowing is quite wide.

In order to shed some light on the validity of any claims made by “Maitreya Rael”, deep research was required in order to discover the volumes dealing with ancient documents about Buddhism. The writings that were found, were authored by people recognized as authorities on the subject matter. These documents were studied meticulously to find the essential proofs that were needed to be able to present them to you in a very clear way.

I also thought that many of you would be happy to share a small part of the results of my research which was done during the two years after my departure from the Movement.

Important notice: The numbers between [ ] refer to Annotations situated at the end of the text. While the numbers between ( ) refer to notes that the reader will be able to find in the part titled “Annotated list of the works consulted”, at the very end of this text.

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Introduction

To plan the path of my research, I studied each of the elements, one by one, originating from the following Raelian websites in relation to Maitreya:

  1. www.maitreya.co.kr/eng/index.htm
  2. http://www.answers.com/topic/ra-l#wp-_note-7

 

I wanted to know if each of the elements mentioned were presented in a just and pertinent way. Were we told the truth… the entire truth?

Reading the following research will give you an answer. Then, it will be up to you to consider or not what you have learned on the subject.

 

Bad Leads End in False Conclusions

I have discovered that the content of the Korean Raelian Movement’s website declaring that “Raël” is Maitreya leads us down false paths, and therefore towards false conclusions.

On these websites, it is said: 

  1. Rael asserts that the Extra-Terrestrials gave him confirmation that he is Maitreya;
  2. That Rael is the «King of Cock»; (You will understand further along.)
  3. That France is the country in the west where Maitreya must appear according to the Buddhists writings;
  4. That the coming of Maitreya is predicted for 3,000 years after the Buddha (the pretension being that the Buddha was born in – 1,027.)

The results of my research demonstrate that: 

  1. The Extra-Terrestrials could not have confirmed to Claude Vorilhon that he is Maitreya;
  2. He is not «the King of the Cock»;
  3. When it is mentioned of the West in the Buddhist writings, it is not referring to France but to India;
  4. The century of the birth of the Buddha [2] is in the -500, the century where Buddhism started, and not -1027. Consequently, the date of the arrival of «Maitreya Rael» predicted for 1973, being so-called 3,000 after the Buddha is inexact.

To save some space and to render this text less bushy, I have chosen to present you only the essential elements exposed on the Raelian Internet sites. But, be assured that I have the answers to the questions that reading this text could bring about. [3]

What I have discovered through my research is fascinating! I propose to you a structured step that, I hope, will be enlightening. So, I present you excerpts from the Raelian sites mentioned before. Then, I expose for you my results showing this way that my discoveries go contrary to the affirmations mentioned on the Raelian sites.

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“KING of the COCK” or BIRD’S FLIGHT?

When reading I discovered that the Buddha did not spent the most of his time to talk about Maitreya. The only reference to Maitreya in the Pali Canon [4] is found in the sutra [5] under the name: Cakkavatti-sihanada-suttanta (4). The name is released! I had to write it since it is the only place where it is spoken of Maitreya in the most ancient known Buddhism. It is also only there that we find mention of the cock in relation with Maitreya so important to the heart of the Korean Raelians who have elaborated the website on Maitreya.

You are about to find out why…

I start by 2 points mentioned on the Korean Raelian website:

1. Rael asserts that the Extra-Terrestrials confirmed to him that he is Maitreya born in the West

and

2. a Buddha named Maitreya will come from the « country governed by the “King of the cock” ».

First demonstration
Let’s take the second point, that is « King of the Cock » and let’s examine the difference between:

1. The citation of the Raelian Movement that comes from a Sanskrit text translated in Chinese written later in the history of Buddhism.

And

2. The text found in a much more ancient document and part of the Pali Canon (The Long discourses of the Buddha).

You will discover that there was no question in the more ancient text of a «King of the Cock» but rather of the distance of a bird’s flight between the cities and villages of India, at the time when Maitreya is awaited. This discovery is not a simple detail. It is one of the elements of the Raelian site that is quickly seen non suit and so constitutes the first element of my proof. So here we can talk of a bad translation and/or an ulterior manipulation by Buddhist sects. It seems evident that the Korean Raelians did not verify the more ancient texts…

Citation from the Korean Raelian site:
« The Extra-Terrestrials Elohim are confirming that the Prophet Rael is indeed the Buddha born in the West. » (13)
« A long time ago Buddhism started in India and came to China via western regions…». They also add:
« The Buddhist belief that the Buddha will appear from the West is based on what is recorded in the Buddhist Sutras. »
We also find a sutra from the Agon period [6]: « In the future a Buddha named Maitreya will appear in the world and he will be from the country ruled by the ″King of the Cock″».

A revealing abstract from the Pali Canon
(1) Sutra 26, 23-25) In the time of those people this continent of Jambudipa (India) will be powerful and prosperous, and villages, towns and cities will be but a cock’s flight one from the next. This Jambudipa, will be as thick with people as the jungle is… At that time the Varanasi (now Benares) of today will be a royal city called Ketumati…and in the time of the people with an eighty thousand-year life-span, there will arise in the world a Blessed Lord, an Arahant [8] fully-enlightened Buddha named Metteyya(Maitreya in Sanskrit). 

No «King of the Cock»
So the only place where there is talk of Maitreya in the Buddhism canonical Pali scriptures, there is no question of a country governed by the «King of the cock», but of a cock’s flight.

This was the first element of my proof.

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Briefly, it is important to consider that the writing of the Pali Canon was spaced over three periods. (5 p. 24). The first period of writing is marked by a simple teaching of the Buddha. In those days he was seen as what he really was: a human being.

Arrived at the 3rd period of writing of the Pali Canon (so later), it is said of the Buddha that he makes miracles (which was not the case in the older texts). It is at this period that there is finally mention of the Buddha Metteyya (Maitreya). (5 p. 24)

Extract from the flight of the cock; a fable!
That text, that sutra of the Long Discourses of the Buddha is considered by the translator as a fable… [9]

Just like me, you notice that «the Cock» (King of the Cock) of the Sanskrit text, translated in Chinese, of which it is question on the Korean Raelian site is not the same as the cock (flight of the cock) mentioned in the Pali Canon! For their demonstration, the Korean Raelians used a Chinese text in which was introduced some inexistent elements in the Pali text, that, let’s recall, is more ancient.

Here I allow myself to specify again that the Raelian site mentions a text talking of a «King of the Cock» and the more ancient Pali Canon does not talk about it.

What is already considered a fable basically (in the Pali Canon), becomes a fairy tale yet more colorful when written in Sanskrit and later in Chinese…

2
FRANCE, COUNTRY of the COCK and of «MAITREYA RAEL»?
False! Maitreya and «the Cock» are found in India!


Maitreya awaited in India
It is in ancient India (14b), North-East of Dali (14a) that Maitreya is awaited, according to tradition(14b). There we find a mountain of the cock that bears different names.
So he is not awaited in France as «Rael» asserts it.

The mountain of the future Buddha Maitreya
I present you the Cock’s Foot Mountain that also bears the following names: Jizushan (14), The Chicken Foot Mountain,Mount TaliMount Gurupadaka (the Honoured Foot Mountain ) (14b)), Chicken Leg MountainFoot Mountain, Rooster’s Feet Mount, and finally Kukkutapada Mount. A temple was built there. (14

Maitreya; a tale amongst those invented by the Buddhist monks
A collection of Buddhist tales informs us that «Metteyya» (Maitreya) will be reborn… in the park of the Isapatana Gazelles near Ketumati (India),… he will approach the Bodhi tree [10],… He will spend seven weeks there (3) and… in the midst of the assembly…, he will set the Wheel of Law in motion [11] in the presence of the king Sankha (3) »

And finally, as a last source, it was written that «Maitreya will descend from the heaven of Tusita [12] to return to his Garden of Eden of Ketumati» (India) (3 (p. 133).

This is the second element of my proof.

**********

In the light of what precedes, the Buddhists are well awaiting Maitreya in India and not in France; even if Claude Vorilhon «Rael» asserts that he very well is «the» Maitreya. Certain Buddhist tales even mention the location: «Near Ketumati» (city in the North of India).

As far as the tales are concerned, they have been invented by Buddhist monks to motivate the secular to act in the direction that they wished with the goal of recruiting more followers and also to illustrate certain words of the Buddha.

3
THE WEST LINKED TO «RAEL»?
Wrong!

Always from the excerpts of the Raelian site, let’s examine the following point:

The WEST is supposed to represent France, where Claude Vorilhon was born, and also represent the country of birth of Maitreya.

On the subject, here are the affirmations, and I quote them, from the Korean Raelian text (the bold characters are my own):
« The Extra-Terrestrials Elohim are confirming that the Prophet Rael is indeed the Buddha born in the West . » (13)
« A long time ago Buddhism started in India and came to China via western regions… ».
« The Buddhist belief that the Buddha will appear from the West is based on what is recorded in the Buddhist Sutras. »
And we also find a Sutra from the Agon period.

Again another proof of the inaccuracy of the content of the Raelian site! As a matter of fact, the following demonstration proves that those statements are totally false.

Where is the west?

Where is the west being mentioned here?
And who says that Maitreya will come from the west? 

Here’s what I discovered…

First, the citations brought forth by the Korean Raelians where there is mention of the Maitreya to come, are from the Chinese texts. The fact that they mention the Agon and Kegon period proves it to us.

Second, I found some passages that show us clearly what is that place considered as being West by the Chinese of the ancient world.

Those excerpts were collected from different authors. Again, it is demonstrated that the Korean Raelian site is on the wrong tract when talking about France as being the West.

Here are the excerpts:
« The last twenty three centuries have seen a continuing cultural inter flow between the Western Paradise that is India and the Celestial Kingdom that is China. … To the Chinese, Central Asia was the way to the Western World of India. » (17)

« (Chinese name) came to Sravasti (India) … well known for his long seventeen year voyage inIndia(17a) … On top of his translation of scriptures … the most essentials, he is the author of « Records of the Western Regions… » (17b)

« (Chinese name) visited Sravasti (India) in 407 AD. He was one of China’s greatest travelers of the fifth century.
He walked… from central China (AD 399) …through India in the county of…From there, …reaching Chienkand (China) in AD 413. He was bringing with him books of the Buddhist Canon ». (18)

And the last, but not the least: «  …while later works are credited to nearly one hundred Chinese monks who had been to the West for education in the Buddhist tenets. » (19)

Now! Let’s see… What is this country from the West that the monks and the Chinese travelers conjure up in their travels and where must Maitreya show up? India.

This was the third element of my proof.

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THE FALSE CALENDER OF THE YEAR 3,000

Finally, I present you the determining excerpt from which is based my next element of proof and where, always starting from the Korean Raelian site, it is said that the year 3,000 of the Buddhist calendar, a new Buddha will appear. Implied « Rael », of course! The Raelians make their calculations starting from the date of a certain Beddou born in 1,027 B.C.

Excerpt from the Raelian site
« A new Buddha will appear from the West in the year 3,000 of the Buddhist Calendar. »
« Buddhist sutras predict that the new Buddha will appear in the Buddhist year 3,000.
« Kegon-Kyon [13] Sutra : In 3,000 years from now, …, show us the sign of the sea which is the basis of all creations. » (6), (7), (11)
« In an Agon sutra, it is predicted that in the Buddhist year 3,000 the truth that reveals the fire of the three worlds, which are the past, the present and the future will appear and 7 days after the Maitreya will appear. »

We find also: …  « The Northern Branch calendar of Buddhism (they forget to mention that this
Branch corresponds to Japan, China, Korea…) and the Christian Calendar have a difference of approximately 1,027 years. This would put the birth of Buddha at the year 1027 BC, the same year of the claimed birth of Beddou (Fot), who, according to Chinese legend, was a “god” of a virgin. ».

Beddou and Sakyamuni: the same Buddha ?
Wow! What is Beddou doing here in regards with THE Buddha whom we all heard of? Is this here mentioned Beddou the one and only person with « our » Buddha Sakyamuni, the Buddha who had an impact on the whole world, the Buddha who gave out his speeches in Northern India? The answer is: NO!! It is not the same person!! Here is the proof.

For this I have traced the century of birth of Buddha Sakyamuni, from the Buddhist calendar beginningafter his death. Here, the exact date of his birth is superfluous, because all that is needed is to prove that he was not born in the year 1,027 B.C. as the Raelians would like us to believe, but more like -500.

Do I have to specify any longer that if I proved to you that the Buddha was born about -500, instead of -1,027, the scaffolding set up by the Raelians collapses? That Claude Vorilhon cannot be Maitreya of the year 3,000 of the Buddhist Era?

The means I have used for tracing the period in which the Buddha was born was to have several of his contemporaries, whom I have traced the dates of birth, « talk ».

If the following information seems tedious for you, I suggest you only skim through the bold characters. They will serve to show you the century of birth of the Buddha, which consists of my proof.

The contemporaries: witnesses of the Buddha
At the time when Siddharta (first name of the Buddha before his illumination) began his wandering ascetic life, six well known characters were at the head of disciplinary groups in the North of India.

Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Mahavira. Ajita Keshakambala (22f), Pakudha Kacchayana (22f), Sanjaya Bellathiputta (influential thinkers during the time of Buddha Sakyamuni.)

« Purana Kassapa, …during Sakyamuni’s time » (22d)

« Mahavira travelled with Gosala for six years and Gautama (Buddha) joined them for three or four years ».

«  Gosala died in the year 484 B.C., one year before the Buddha

« Mahavira lived until – 467 ». (21) « He was a contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha » (22b).

« Mahavira was older than the Buddha and died two years earlier. » (22c)

« Ajita Kesakambali, … 6th century B.C. (22) He was mentioned in the Pitakas (part of the Pali Canon) as being contemporaneous with the Buddha ». (22a)

Other contemporaries…
« The Buddha…could be seen in Magadha approximately in the year -500 » (2a)
(5, p. 47) « …contemporaneous with the Buddha. It is about the familiar relations of the Buddha with the king of Kosala (the Pasenadi king whose conversion was made in the second year of the Buddha(5a) …and mentions the war between Pasenadi and Ajatasattu. King Pasenadi of Kosalapredeceased the Buddha. (23b)

« Ajatashatru , King of Northern India, ruled: 491-461 BCE. His father, Bimbisara (558-49BCE) was a king from 543 BCE to his death and was a contemporary of Gautama the Buddha. (23). Ajatasattuwas also a contemporary of Lord Buddha…(23a)
The Buddha is thought to have died in the 8th year of Ajatasatru’s reign.

(5, p.377) In the Buddhist Pali Canon (the Nikayas) only 2 names of persons appear as having taught the Buddha. They are Alara Kalama (died on december 1st 531 B.C. (24)) and Uddaka (or Rudraka) Ramaputta.

During the 5th century B.C., Anathapindika was one of the best known secular disciples of the Buddha.(25)

Several references as proof.
Yes, true, I have searched and found several references. But the subject being serious (and not cinema), I wanted to guard myself against any possible doubt as to the pertinence of my proof.

Thanks to the preceding data, I think I have found the proper century for the birth of the Buddha… and you? It appears to me that it has been proven that to calculate from 1,027 B.C. to find the birthday of the Buddha is a grotesque « mistake ». So it is not surprising that the calendar of the «Southern Branch» of Buddhism has taken over on the calendar of the «Northern Branch» which is China , Korea, Japan… for the purpose of discussing the time of birth of Buddha… This simply makes good sense!

Consequently, the date of the future Buddha Maitreya should have been calculated starting from the -500 years. That’s it!

This is the first part of my fourth element of proof.

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But in case this would not be sufficient … I have traced divers birth dates attributed to the Buddha.

Anniversary dates for Buddha
– Between 563 and 483 B.C. The oriental traditions offer a choice of different dates, the favorite in Sri-Lanka and in the South-East of Asia being 623-543. (1a)
– Between 563-483 B.C.(5, p.371)
– Wikipedia situates it in the same period being 563 B.C.
– On the full moon of may of the year 623 B.C. (26)
– Between 563 and 483 B.C. Although certain Buddhist legends say that he was born on April 8, 1029 B.C., and that he died on February 15, 949. (27)
– Around 560 B.C. (28)
– In 563 B.C. (29)
– Which locates the birth of the Buddha in the year 544 B.C. (30)

The birth dates listed are coherent with those of the contemporaries of Buddha. Personally I have no more doubts. It is not possible to calculate the birth of Maitreya starting from Beddou as the Korean Raelian site prompts us to do. Because Beddou is not the Buddha Sakyamuni from whom the next coming of Maitreya should have been calculated.

This constitutes the second part of my fourth element of proof.

**********

A bit of history…
In a text, I have read that Buddhism, as a movement, was forced to make up a second coming of the Buddha Maitreya (12) In order to attract followers and compete with two other religions that each had their own « savior »…

The Chinese have gathered in their «canon» the Buddhist texts stemming from different schools through time…Also, the content of their «canon» never ceased to grow during several centuries.

Conclusion
What is there left of the invention «Maitreya Rael» to attract disciples? NOTHING!

The Raelians did not check either (as I had not done myself until I left the Raelian Movement) in the most ancient texts, before becoming Raelian, if it was really possible that Rael was a «prophet»… Those texts stemming from Sumerian clay tablets date from way back before the Bible written in Hebrew. If they had done it… they would never have become Raelians. NOW, I KNOW.

Knowledge brings forth freedom…

The Buddha said that he could have been lax to all his precepts except for truth

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Note: Jean-Denis Saint-Cyr, My ex-companion (from 1970 to 1988) and ex-national guide, level 5, for the Raelian Movement (1984-1990) is about to publish a shocking book unveiling THE big secret that’s never been revealed to the public until now, concerning Claude Vorilhon “Raël”.

**********

Annotations

* Their are 6 levels of responsibility amongst the raelians, Rael being level 6.

[1] You can’t say THE Maitreya (as inscribed on the front cover of the French volume)… you must say Maitreya (without the THE) because Maitreya is not a title, it is a name. Maitreya is written the same way in French as it is in English and not Maitraya as it is inscribed on the cover of the French version.
See Wikipedia.org and all writings (books) on Buddhism… Here are a few examples found in a few volumes where it is talked about Maitreya and is it well demonstrated that Maitreya is a name. 1. « The Buddha called Maitreya… » (p. 133, The Sasavatthuppakarana) » 2. « He ascended to the Tusita heaven where Maitreya…» (p.7 The message of the future Buddha) 3. « …starting with Maitreya »  (Words of the Buddha p. 128) 4. « Maitreya will teach… » (Words of the Buddha)
[2] The Buddha (The awakened), always with the article. (Wikipedia)
[3] The concerned reader can eventually (SOME TIME IN JUNE OR JULY) peruse more details of my research on Internet by clicking Claire Labrie on Google, for example.
[4] Pali Canon : the entirety of the texts known to be the word of the Buddha . This complete Canon is the most ancient Canon that we posses to this day.
[5] The suttas or sutras are the written works in which are transcribed the words of the Buddha and his different teachings. The sutras of the Theravada school (or medium of the elders) found in the Pali Canon, are amongst the oldest because they were compiled shortly after the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni. (To picture this, maybe we could compare the Buddhist sutras to the verses of the Bible…)
[6] In China, during the VI th century, the teachings of «the Buddha» were categorized in 5 periods; of which the Kegon and Agon periods. Nevertheless, those sutras contain enormous differences compared to the sutras of the Pali Canon (more ancient).
[8] Arahant (Pali) Arhat (Sanskrit), the one who has attained Nirvana, the highest level of spiritual life. It is the level described by the Buddha as mentioned in the Pali Canon.
[9] « We seem to be back in the ‘fairy-tale’ world of some previous Suttas…this fable (which is what, it really is, rather than a fairy-tale,). (1) note 781.
[10] The tree where Buddha attained illumination.
[11] Wheel of Law: The path to illumination taught by the Buddha.
[12] Tusita, the place according to the legend, where Maitreya awaits his return on earth. 
[13] THE FLOWER ORNAMENT SCRITPTURE (7) (11, p. 215). It appeared around 400 in China and added to the sermons of the Buddha by the Buddhist school of the Mahayana (prier to the school of the elders (early school)) as if it was his teaching and also his first sermon. Look at the first sermon: (8) (pp. 24-25) (8b) (8c). No school in India can be linked to that Sutra.

 

List of Consulted Works

  1. (1) THE LONG DISCOURSES OF THE BUDDHA, THE DIGHA NIKAYA, Pali Canon, translated by Maurice Walshe, Wisdom Publications, 1987, 1995. The Pali Tipitaka is the only canon of an early school that is preserved completely. You can also find the sutra 26 at the number 23 on this site: http://www.kmspks.org/activities/bbc/bbc10.htm ).
    1. (1a) Introduction p. 19-20,
  2. (2) THE LARGE SUTRA OF PERFECT WISDOM (Mahayana) P.306, 111 9) : Translated from Sanskrit and edited by Edward Conze. University of California Press 1975. A series of cosmic miracles preceded the teaching of this, as of other Mahayana sutras.
    1. (2a) Introduction Mahayana, chapters 1-21 p. 1, 2).
  3. (3) The DASAVATTHUPPAKARANA,p. 133-34 : Edited and translated by Jacqueline Ver EEcke, French School of the Far East, Paris, 1976: Collection of Buddhist tales written in PaliAll are written by monks illustrating tirelessly the great themes of the Buddhist moral in use by the faithful secular. Few are originals; most remind us of the well known tales elsewhere in the Canon commentaries. As in all popular stories, a large place is given to the marvelous. Its role is to nourish the dream and the imagination of the listener. So the storyteller digs into the mythology legends his best arguments and describes the paradises, palaces, dancers, musicians, parcs, and basins of lotuses that reward the donors. P. 132 To illustrate the gift of a dwelling place, Jetthanalakaradevaputta (Pali). This tale is made from the DIGHA-NIKAYA (The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Sutta 26, Cakkavatti-Sihanada Sutta : the Lion’s Roar on the Turning of the Wheel , See the Long Discourses of the Buddha above…
  4. (4) ANAGATAVAMSA DESANA The Sermon of the Choronicle – To-Be, Translated from the Sinhala by Udaya Meddegama.
  5. (5) STUDIES IN THE ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM, G.C. Pande thinker, scholar, historian, regarded internationally as an authority on Buddhism and ancient Indian culture. Recipient of many honorary degrees and awards. P.98 According to Winternitz. 5a) Rockhill, p.49
  6. (6) THE MESSAGE OF THE FUTURE BUDDHA, François Chénique : theology and the history of religions, at the same time as he was furthering his linguistic knowledge of Hebrew Sanskrit and Tibet. Translated from Sanskrit and Tibet, 2001, Editions Dervy, Maitreya-Asanga : Fa-tsang 643-712), collaborated to the translation of the AvatamsakaP. 7 Maitreya and Asanga. Asanga was born on the 1Vth century of our era, a monk, son of a Brahman and new follower of Buddhism; however the doctrine of Vacuity as taught by the schools of the time was not suitable for him. Thanks to the powers that he had acquired through yoga, he went to the heavens of Tushita where Maitreya taught him a deeper and more precise outlook of the teaching of the Buddha Shakyamouni. Asanga transmitted the revelation that he had received from Maitreya and this is how was born what is agreed to call the Large Vehicle of Buddhism (Mahayana). (Introduction p. 7.2 Asanga has recorded the message received from the Buddha Maitreya in Sanskrit verses). P. 12.1 : Asanga is the founder of the Vijnanavada or Yogacara School with his brother Vasubandhu (wikipedia) (school of Buddhism Mahayana). He was born on the 1Vth century of our era in North-West of India, himself and his brother converted to Buddhism were first part of the Sarvastivadin School (This school originated in the times of the king Asoka, 273-222). P.13.2 We can certainly question ourselves on the spiritual experience of Asanga at the heaven of Tusita and on his relations, real or imaginary, with the Bodhisattva Maitreya. The modern commentators don’t believe much so, or not at all, especially since the evidence of the composite character of the RGB ( P.7.2) The treaty contains several names. In Sanskrit it is the ultimate treaty of the Large Vehicle on the Spiritual Lineage of the Three Jewell’s, and it is currently designated ( in recent works) by the abbreviation RGV (Ratna-Gotra-Vibhaga).
  7. (7) THE FLOWER ORNAMENT SCRIPTURE or AVATAMSAKA. Thomas Cleary’s definite translation of all 39 books of the Sutra, 1993, Shambala Publications. He holds a doctorate in East Asian Languages and Civilizations from Harvard University.Introduction p. 1. It is not known when or by whom this scripture was composed. It is thought to have issued from different hands in the Indian cultural sphere during the first and second centuries AD. p. 1 The Flower Ornament Scripture presents a compendium of Buddhist teachings. Historicity as such is certainly of little account in the flower Ornament Scripture. This is generally true of the Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, although they usually present their teachings as having been revealed or occasioned by the meditations of the historical Buddha Shakyamuni. In the case of the Flower Ornament Scripture, most of the discourse is done by transhistorical, symbolic beings that represent aspects of universal enlightenment. The Buddha shifts from an individual to a cosmic principle and manifestations of that cosmic principle. p. 3 The discipline of the Flower Ornament Scripture is not the same as the teaching of the lesser vehicle (Pali Canon). p. 45 The final book (39) of the Fower Ornament Scripture. Known in Sanskrit as an individual scripture called Gandavyuha, this book describes the development of enlightenment through TALES OF A PILGRIMAGE. The central character, Sudhana, calls on a number of spiritual guides, each of whom sends him on to another for further enlightenment. Eventually Sudhana comes to the abode of Maitreya…Translator’s Introduction p. 1546: The range of this scripture and the multitude of far-flung branches of the school it comprehends places it in a class by itself. It appears to be the product of an esoteric association.
  8. (8 p24-25) THE MIDDLE LENGTH DISCOURSES OF THE BUDDHA, A Translation of the MAJJHIMA NIKAYA, 1995, by Bhikkhu (monk) Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications.
    1. (8b) 4.31, 36.42
    2. (8c) 141.2
  9. (9) THE LOTUS OF THE TRUE LAW (Saddharma-Pundarika)
  10. (11) ON INDIAN MAHAYANA BUDDHISM p. 22.1 The first Mahayana phase, completed by about A.D. 150, corresponds to what is traditionally known as “the second turning of the wheel of the Dharma” (the sermon of Benares being the first). …p. 23 the Buddha attains omniscience, i.e., nothing less than the knowledge of everything, both in general and in detail. This is obviously quite a late development of the doctrine, p. 215 The Gandavyuha belong in the Chinese Tripitaka to the Mahayana collection known as the Kegon-gyo.: The Sanskrit title of the Kegon-gyo is Avatamsaka.
  11. (12) THREE GANDHARI EKOTTARIKAGAMA-TYPE SUTRAS, Mark Allon, Gandharan Buddhist Texts 2, Series editor: Richard Salomon, University of Washington Press, Seattle and London, 2001 P. 36 …3 canonical Sanskrit Sutras belonging to the Sarvastivadin school, von Simson (1965) showed that the prose of these Skt. Texts is frequently more elaborate than that of the corresponding Pali texts.
  12. (13) http://www.maitreya.co.kr/ENG/INDEX.HTM
  13. (14) http://www.tmcnabb.com/lgchina.html Cock’s Foot Mountain
    1. (14a) View of Jizushan (Chicken Foot Mountain) near Dali http://fr1.chinabroadcast.cn/1/2004/08/23/57@39385.htm
    2. (14b) Kukkutapada, Mount (Skt) (Jpn.: Keisoku-sen)
  14. (15) ANGUTTARA-NIKAYA THE BOOK OF THE GRADUAL SAYINGS Book 3, p. 48,
    1. (15a) Volume 5 p. 220.
  15. (17) http://ignca.nic.in/ks_41023.htm
    1. (17a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xuanzang
    2. (17b) http://www.iep.utm.edu/x/xuanzang.htm
  16. (18) http://www.silk-road.com/artl/fahsien.shtml
  17. (19) http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n1/004591ar.html
  18. (20) http://www.answers.com/topic/ra-1#wp-_note-7
  19. (21) ALAIN DANIELOU, While the Gods Play, Inner Traditions International, Rochester, Vermont 1987.http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:aLCQ0XwDC1oJ:users.cyberone.com.au/myers/danielou2.html+Makkhali+Gosala&hl=fr&ct=clnk&cd=35
    1. (22a) http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/am/ajitakesakambala.htm
    2. (22b) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavira Mahavira or Mahavir (the “Great Hero”).
    3. (22c) http://www.jainisme.com/jainisme/mahavira/
    4. (22d) http://www.sgi-usa.org/buddhism/dictionary/define?tid=1557
    5. (22f) www.sgi-usa.org/buddhism/dictionary
  20. (23) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimbisara ).
    1. (23a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajatasattu .
    2. (23b) http://www.bps.lk/bp_library/bp_102s/page_11.html
  21. (24) http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alara_Kalama
  22. (25) http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/disciples11.htm
  23. (26) http://www.serve.com/~cmtan/LifeBuddha/buddha1.htm
  24. (27) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha
  25. (28) www.reward-english.com/warehouse/May/rw027-buddhaE.pdf#search=’buddha’s%20birthday
  26. (29) http://www.uua.org/clf/connections/World%20Religion/buddha.html
  27. (30) http://www.chinatownhi.com/buddah.asp
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